Fred Sanger on Since 1975: The Dideoxy Method for DNA Sequencing
  Fred Sanger     Biography    
Recorded: 16 Jun 2005

Obviously the methods have been improved a lot, the techniques, but it is still essentially the same dideoxy technique, which we had developed.

There have been a lot of developments, you see. I mean, we used to have to have four different samples for each nucleotide and now they have-do it all together by labeling with different colored dyes. It’s all done on a very small scale and little tiny tubes, whereas we did it on great slabs of acrylamide gels, so it’s obviously much cheaper and much faster and, of course, because it’s an awful lot of computer work. I mean, people don’t do the experiments. It’s done automatically and the results worked out by computers and things.

Frederick Sanger, OM, CH, CBE, FRS (born 13 August 1918) is an English biochemist and twice a Nobel laureate in chemistry. In 1958 he was awarded a Nobel prize in chemistry "for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin". In 1980, Walter Gilbert and Sanger shared half of the chemistry prize "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids". The other half was awarded to Paul Berg "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA".

He is the fourth (and only living) person to have been awarded two Nobel Prizes, either wholly or in part.